About Biotechnology

About Biotechnology - Biotechnology is the utilization of scientific principles that use living things to produce products and services for the benefit of humans. Biotechnology is not actually a discipline, but an application of science, a technique in biology. The supporting sciences in biotechnology include microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, chemical engineering, and enzymology. In biotechnology typically used microorganisms or parts thereof to increase the added value of a material. 

Biotechnology can be classified into conventional / traditional biotechnology. Biotechnology, since its early application until early 1857 is called the era of microbial biotechnology. Because at that time it is not known that fermented food is the work of living things. The products of the era include beer, bread, cheese, yoghurt, sour milk and, sak

Conventional biotechnology
Conventional biotechnology is a biotechnology that utilizes microorganisms to produce alcohol, acetic acid, sugar, or foodstuffs, such as tempeh, tape, oncom, and soy sauce. Microorganisms can change food. Microorganism-assisted processes, such as fermentation, include tempe, tape, soy sauce, etc. including cheese and yoghurt. The process is considered a biotechnology of the past.

Characteristic that appears in conventional biotechnology, namely the use of living things directly and do not know the use of enzymes. Some examples of the application of conventional biotechnology in processing foodstuffs include processing dairy products that can be processed into new forms, such as yogurt, cheese, and butter. Nonsusu processing products such as soy sauce and tempeh.

Other examples of conventional biotechnology applications in agriculture include hydroponic cultivation and aeroponic cultivation.

Modern Biotechnology
Modern biotechnology includes biotechnology in medicine, agricultural biotechnology, livestock biotechnology, and future fuel biotechnology.

Examples of modern biotechnology applications include genetic engineering that includes nuclear transplantation, cell fusion, plasmid technology, and DNA recombination. Medical biotechnology includes the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones. Agricultural biotechnology includes the manufacture of plants capable of binding to nitrogen, and pest resistant plants. Biotechnology in the field of animal husbandry, future fuel biotechnology, and waste treatment biotechnology

How to Pay Fidyah Fasting - Fidyah is a way to replace fasting is reserved for parents, pregnant women. Breastfeeding who can not carry out fasting. Because Ramadan fasting is the obligation of Muslims who meet the mandatory requirements of fasting. So like not to like we have to do as Muslims who are obedient to Islamic law. But for those who are not able to perform for special reasons, parents, pregnant women / mothers may not perform fast but must pay Fidyah in lieu of abandoned fasting

One can pay fidyah, on the same day when he does not perform fasting. Or ending until the last day of Ramadan, as did by Anas bin Malik's best friend when he was old.

 What should not be done is a fidyah payment made before Ramadan. For example: There are sick people who can not be expected anymore, then when Sha'ban month has come, he has already paid fidyah first. So that is not allowed. He must wait until the month of Ramadan really entered, then he can pay fidyah when that day or can be piled at the end of Ramadan. 

How to Pay Fidyah Fasting according to Imam As-Syafi'i and Imam Malik that the fidyah measure to be paid to each one of the poor is a mud of wheat according to the size of the Prophet Muhammad's mud. What is meant by mud is the palm of the hand raised up to accommodate the food, approximately like a person praying. 

Meanwhile, according to Abu Hanifah is two mud wheat with the size of mud Rasulullah SAW or equivalent to half sha 'dates or flour. Or can be synchronized with lunch and dinner to be satisfied to one poor person. 

In the book Al-FiqhulIslamiWaAdillatuhu by Dr. WahbahAz-Zuhaili vol. 1 page 143 describes in detail How to Pay Fidyah, that when measured by the present-day measure, one mud is equivalent to 675 grams or 0.688 liters. While 1 sha` equivalent to 4 mud. When weighed, 1 sha` it weighs approximately 2,176 grams. When measured volume, 1 sha` equivalent to 2.75 liters.

Famis obligatory to pay Fidyah Fasting People who are sick and generally set up are difficult to recover. An elderly or weak person who is no longer strong fasting. Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding if when not fasting worries the child is conceived or breastfed it. They are obliged to pay fidyah according to some scholars, but according to Imam Syafi'i than obliged to pay fidyah is also obliged mengqadha 'fasting. Meanwhile, in other opinion, do not pay fidyah but enough mengqadha '. People who postpone the obligation to make fasting Ramadan without syar'i until the next year Ramadan is ahead. They are obliged to make up their minds and pay the fidyah, according to some scholars.

 How to Pay FidyahThe essence of paying fidyah is to replace a day of fasting abandoned by feeding one poor person. However, the payment model can be applied in two ways: Cooking or making food, then inviting the poor a number of days left during the month of Ramadan. Giving to the poor in the form of uncooked food. How much more perfect if also given something to be a side dish.

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